衆所周知,由於中國文字突出的表意特徵,文字學在中國源遠流長,蔚爲大觀。然而自晚清以來的中英翻譯中,古老的文字學術語却遇到了不小的困難。幸運的是,已經有學者注意到這個問題。比如此篇专栏文章,即下表就是伯克利兩位學者的翻譯。

此外,中國學者也有成果問世,比較權威的有沙宗元的《文字學術語規範研究》(安徽大學出版社,2008),語言學名詞審定委員會的《語言學名詞》(商務印書館,2011),前者是後者工作的一部分。

《文字學術語規範研究》可在引得市(Index 引得市)中查詢。(via 趙瑾昀評論)

《語言學名詞》的術語可到全國科學技術名詞審定委員會的術語在綫網站(术语在线-权威的术语知识服务平台)查詢。

目前,我們正在將上述資料整合到一起,測試Beta版地址為 https://lingdata.org/terms/ ,部分功能尚未完成,請諒解。

A. English-Chinese

abbreviated phonetic,省聲

abbreviated signific,省形

abstract graph,抽象字

abstract representations,抽象的象形符號

abstract symbol,抽象的形符

allograph, variant, alternate way of writing,異體(字)

altered graph,變體字

alternate concentration of functions between two graphs,兩個字的職務的交互集中

alternate form, variant form,或體

alteration of phonetic symbols,改換音符

alteration of semantic symbols,改換意符

ancient and modern forms/graphs,古今字

ancient script form,古文

binome,雙音節詞

borrowed graph, borrowing,通假字

borrowed meaning,假借義

borrowing of both the sound and form of the borrowed graph,形音兼借字

borrowing of graphic shape,形借

bronze clan inscription,族徽金文

bronze clan name,族名金文

Chinese characters in common use,通用漢字

Chinese characters in general use,使用的漢字

clan emblem,族徽

classifier,類符

clerical script,隸書

close in pronunciation,音近

cognate,同源詞

complex pictorial graph,復雜象物字

component, element,旁

composite graph/character,合體字

compound graph,合文

concentration of lexical functions,文字職務的集中

concurrently polyphonic and polysemic forms,一形(字)多音義

consolidation of variant forms,異體字整理

conventional form,習用字

corruption,訛變

current forms,通行字

dedicated form,專用字

deformation of phonetics,聲旁的破壞

deictic,指事

deictic graph, deictograph,指示字

deictic symbol,指示符號

derivational relationship,造字相承的關系

derivation of new words,派生新詞

derivate, derived form,派生詞

determinative,定符

differentiated graph/form,分化字

differentiation,分化

differentiation of graphic forms,字形分化

different graphs sharing the same graphic shapes,異字同形

dispersal of the lexical loads of graphs,分散文字職務

dispersal of the lexical loads of polysemic graphs,分散多義字職務

distribution of lexical loads among allographs,異體字分工

disyllabic,雙音詞

disyllabic compound,雙音節復合詞

disyllabic morpheme,雙音節語素

disyllabic reduplicative phrase,疊字雙音詞

emblem,圖形

etymology,語源

etymon,母詞

extended meaning/sense,引申義

free morpheme,單獨詞

fully integrated writing system,完整的文字體系

grammatology,文字學

graphic abbreviation,省略偏旁字形

graphic borrowing,假借用法

graphic component,偏旁

graphic consolidation,文字的合幷

graphic derivates,文字孳乳

graphic form,字體

graphic form, graphic shape,字形

graphs having multiple uses,一字多用

graphic loans,文字假借

graphic symbol,文字符號

graphic symbol,字符

historically interchangeable graphs,歷史通用字

homography/homograph,同形字

homophone,同音字

homophonous cognates,同音的同源詞

homophonous or nearly homophonous graph,同音或音近的字

homophonous speller,直音

iconography,圖

identification mark ,標記

identificational inscription,記名金文

ideographic writing,表意文字

indiscriminate interchange,彼此混用

interchange of phonetics,聲旁的代換

interchange of signifies,形旁的代換

interchangeable graphs,通用字

late semanto-phonetic script,後期意(符)音(符)文字

lexical meaning, a word's meaning,詞意

linearization,線條化

loaned phonetic symbols,借音符

loangraph, jiajie, borrowing,假借

matrigraph,母字

mature standard script,成熟的楷書

meaning,意義

modem form/graph,今字

monosyllabic morpheme,單音節語素

morphemes with the same graphic form,同形語素

morphemic graph,語素字

morphemic symbol,語素的符號

morphemic writing/script,語素文字

morphemo-syllabic script/writing,語素——音節文字

multi-functional graph,一字多職

multiple phonetics,多聲

multiple semantic components,多形

mutual exchange of lexical functions,職務互易

neo-clerical script,新隸體

new derived form,派生出新詞

new graph, later form, younger graph,後起字

non-composite characters,獨體字

non-phonetic type characters,非形聲結構

non-syssemantic,非會意字

numerical symbols,記數符號

one syllable ending in a nasal and the other in a non-nasal,陰陽對轉

original meaning,本來意義

original meaning, original sense,本義

orthograph,本字

phonemic script,音素文字

phonetic,聲旁

phonetic, phonetic symbol/element,音符

phonetic component,表音偏旁

phonetic script,拼音文字

phonetic symbol,表音符號

phonetic symbol, phonetic,注音符

phonogram,形聲字

phonogram, phonetic letters,表音字

phonological borrowing, borrowing,通假

phonological variation,聲韻通轉

phonology,語音

pictograph,象形字

pictographic,象形

pictographic aspect,圖畫意味

pictographic protoform,象形初文

pictographic sense,圖形意味

pictographic symbol,象形符號

pictographic symbol,形符

pictorial,圖形式

pictorial graph,象物字

pictorial semantogram,圖形式表意字

pictorial syssemantograph,圖形式會意字

picture, pictorial representation,圖畫

polygraphy,一詞多形

polysemic graph,多義字

polysyllabic,多音詞

popular character, vulgarism,俗字

popular form, vulgar form,俗體

popular orthograph,俗本字

popular script,通俗文字

primitive meaning,原始的意義

primative writing,原始文字

pronunciation of characters,字音

proper graph,正字

protoform,初文

purely phonetic element,純音符

quasi-allographs,部分異體字

quasi-composite characters,準合體字

quasi-composite semantograph,準合體表意字

quasi-pictorial graph,象事字

radical,部

reading and meaning,音義

reading, pronunciation,讀音

scholars of the script, grammatologist; students of the script,文字學者

seal script,篆文

segmentation of graphs into strokes,筆畫化

semantic,字義

semantic component,表意偏旁

semantic extension,引申

semantic extension,語義引申

semantic symbol,表意符號

semantic symbol,意符

semantograph,表意字

semantographic protoform,表意初文

semantographic symbol,義符

semanto-phonetic script,意(符)音(符)文字

semanto-phonetic-sign script,意符音符記號文字

semantophoric phonetic, semanto-phoric phonogram, phonetics that convey meaning,有意的聲旁

semi-semantograph,半記號半表意字

semi-sign (character),半記號字

semi-sign and semi-phonogram,半記號半表音字

sign,記號

sign, sign graph,記號字

signific, semantic component,形旁

signific, semantic symbol,注意符

simplification of Chinese script,漢字簡化

simultaneously syssemantic and phonetic compound graph,會意兼形聲字

simultaneously a phonetic and a signific, phonetic symbols which are concurrently semantic symbols,音符兼意符

six principles theory of Chinese script,六書說

standard form,正體

standard script,楷書

syllabic script,音節文字

syllabograms,音節符號

symbol,符號

synonymic interchange ,同義換讀

syssemantograph,會意字

three principles theory of Chinese script,三書說

transitional writing,過度文字

Tri-script Stone Classics,三體石經

trisyllabic morpheme,三音節語素

variant forms associated with different writing traditions,重文

variant forms of a single graph,一字異體

wordbook,字書

word writing,詞文字

word-syllabic writing/script,詞——音節文字

writing system,文字體系

younger orthograph,後起本字

B. Chinese-English

半記號半表意字,semi-semantogram

半記號半表音字,semi-sign and semi-phonogram

半記號字,semi-sign (character)

本來意義,original meaning

本義,original meaning, original sense

本字,orthograph

變體字,altered graph

標記,identification mark

表意初文,semantographic protoform

表意符號,semantic symbols

表意偏旁,semantic component

表意文字,ideographic writing

表意字,semantogram

表音偏旁,phonetic component

表音符號,phonetic symbol

表音字,phonogram, phonetic letters

彼此混用,indiscriminate interchange

筆畫化,segmentation of graphs into strokes

部,radical

部分異體字,quasi-allographs

成熟的楷書,mature standard script

重文,variant forms associated with different writing traditions

抽象的象形符號,abstract representations

抽象的形符,abstract symbol

抽象字,abstract graph

純音符,purely phonetic element

初文,protoform

詞文字,word writing

詞意,lexical meaning, a word's meaning

詞——音節文字,word-syllabic writing/script

單獨詞,free morpheme

單音節語素,monosyllabic morpheme

疊字雙音詞,disyllabic reduplicative phrase

定符,determinative

獨體字,non-composite characters

多聲,multiple phonetics

多形,multiple semantic components

多義字,polysemic graph

多音詞,polysyllabic

讀音,reading, pronunciation

訛變,corruption

非會意字,nonsyssemantic

非形聲結構,non-phonetic type characters

分化,differentiation

分化字,differentiated graph/form

分散多義字職務,dispersal of the lexical loads of polysemic graphs

分散文字職務,dispersal of the lexical loads of graphs

符號,symbol

復雜象物字,complex pictorial graph

改換意符,alteration of semantic symbols

改換音符,alteration of phonetic symbols

古今字,ancient and modern forms/graphs

古文,ancient script form

過度文字,transitional writing

漢字簡化,simplification of Chinese script

合體字,composite graph/character

合文,compound graph

後起本字,younger orthography

後期意(符)音(符)文字,late semanto-phonetic script

後起字,new graph, later form, younger graph

會意兼形聲字,simultaneously syssemantic and phonetic compound graph

會意字,syssemantograph

或體,alternate form, variant form

假借,loangraph, jiajie, borrowing

假借用法,graphic borrowing

假借義,borrowed meaning

借音符,loaned phonetic symbols

記號,sign

記號字,sign, sign graph

記名金文,identificational inscription

今字,modern form/graph

記數符號,numerical symbols

楷書,standard script

類符,classifier

兩個字的職務的交互集中,alternate concentration of functions between two graphs

歷史通用字,historically interchangeable graphs

隸書,clerical script

六書說,six principles theory of Chinese script

母詞,etymon

母字,matrigraph

派生詞,derivate, derived form

派生出新詞,new derived form

派生新詞,derivation of new words

旁,component, element

偏旁,graphic component

拼音文字,phonetic script

三書說,three principles theory of Chinese script

三體石經,Tri-script Stone Classics

三音節語素,trisyllabic morpheme

省略偏旁字形,graphic abbreviation

聲旁,phonetic

聲旁的代換,interchange of phonetics

聲旁的破壞,deformation of phonetics

省聲,abbreviated phonetic

省形,abbreviated signific

聲韻通轉,phonological variation

使用的漢字,Chinese characters in general use

雙音詞,disyllabic

雙音節復合詞,dislyllabic compound

雙音節詞,binome

雙音節語素,disyllabic morpheme

俗本字,popular orthography

俗體,popular form, vulgar form

俗字,popular character, vulgarism

通假,phonological borrowing, borrowing

通假字,borrowed graph, borrowing

通俗文字,popular script

同形語素,morphemes with the same graphic forms

通行字,current forms

同形字,homography/homographs

同義換讀,synonymic interchange

同音的同源詞,homophonous cognates

同音或音近的字,homophonous or nearly homophonous graph

同音字,homophone

通用漢字,Chinese characters in common use

通用字,interchangeable graphs

同源詞,cognate

圖,iconograph

圖畫,picture, pictorial representation

圖畫意味,pictographic aspect

圖形,emblem

圖形意味,pictographic sense

圖形式,pictorial

圖形式表意字,pictorial semantogram

圖形式會意字,pictorial syssemantic graph

完整的文字體系,a fully integrated writing system

文字的合幷,graphic consolidation

文字符號,graphic symbol

文字假借,graphic loans

文字體系,writing system

文字學,grammatology

文字學者,scholars of the script, grammatologist; students of the script

文字孳乳,graphic derivates

文字職務的集中,concentration of lexical functions

習用字,conventional form

線條化,linearization

象事字,quasi-pictorial graph

象物字,pictorial graph

象形,pictographic

象形初文,pictographic protoform

象形符號,pictographic symbol

象形字,pictograph

形符,pictographic symbol

形借,borrowing of graphic shape

形旁,signific, semantic component

形旁的代換,interchange of signifies

形聲字,phonogram

形音兼借字,the borrowing of both the sound and form of the borrowed graph

新隸體,neo-clerical script

一詞多形,polygraphy

意符,semantic symbol

義符,semantographic symbol

意(符)音(符)文字,semanto-phonetic script

意(符)音(符)記號文字,semanto-phonetic-sign script

音符,phonetic, phonetic symbol/ element

音符兼意符,simultaneously a phonetic and a signific, phonetic symbols which are concurrently semantic symbols

音節符號,syllabogram

音節文字,syllabic script

音近,close in pronunciation

引申,semantic extension

引申義,extended meaning/sense

音素文字,phonemic script

陰陽對轉,one syllable ending in a nasal and the other in a non-nasal

音義,reading and meaning

異體(字),allograph, variant, alternate way of writing

異體字分工,distribution of lexical loads among allographs

異體字整理,consolidation of variant forms

一形(字)多音義,concurrently polyphonic and polysemic forms

意義,meaning

一字異體,variant forms of a single graph

一字多用,graphs having multiple uses

一字多職,multi-functional graph

異字同形,different graphs sharing the same graphic shapes

有意的聲旁,semantophoric phonetic, semantophoric phonogram, phonetics that convey meaning

原始的意義,primitive meaning

原始文字,primitive writing

語素的符號,morphemic symbol

語素字,morphemic graph

語素文字,morphemic writing/script

語素——音節文字,morphemo-syllabic script/writing

語義引申,semantic extension

語音,phonology

語源,etymology

造字相承的關系,derivational relationship

正體,standard form

正字,proper graph

指事,deictic

指示符號,deictic symbol

指示字,deictic graph, deictograph

職務互易,mutual exchange of lexical functions

直音,homophonous speller

篆文,seal script

專用字,dedicated form

準合體字,quasi-composite characters

準合體表意字,quasi-composite semantogram

注意符,signific, semantic symbol

注音符,phonetic symbol, phonetic

字符,graphic symbol

字書,wordbook

字體,graphic form

字形,graphic form, graphic shape

字形分化,differentiation of graphic forms

字義,semantic

字音,pronunciation of characters

族徽,clan emblem

族徽金文,bronze clan inscription

族名金文,bronze clan name

Resource:

Chinese Writing by Qiu Xigui; translated by Gilbert L. Mattos and Jerry Norman.

Society for the Study of Early China : Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, 2000.